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Media, Film & Communication: Referencing & Writing

What's a CITATION Style and which one should I use?

A citation or referencing style is a standardised way of referencing research you use in your academic work. In Media, Film and Communication papers, Harvard and MLA are commonly used.

Check with your lecturer, tutor or supervisor if you are unsure which style to follow:

WHY do I need to Reference?

Referencing the ideas and research you use in your essays is a vital part of all academic work because it:

  • acknowledges how others' work has influenced your thinking;
  • provides evidence for your arguments; and
  • assists other researchers to locate the sources you use

Here are some further resources to check out:

Academic Integrity & using information ethically

The University of Otago requires all students to act with academic integrity, and takes cases of plagiarism seriously. Check out the resources below to find strategies to act with integrity and avoid plagiarism in your assignments:

Help with WRITING

Pencils | Amir Taj

Want to improve your writing skills?

Student Learning Development has fantastic Writing and Language Development advice, workshops and online resources for you to use.

Other tools you can explore include:

Reference management tools

Bibliographic management software can help you to store, organise, and format references.  It also allows you to easily insert citations into Word documents and bibliographies as you write. Compare products for storing and managing your references.


  • EndNote is desktop-based software that is supported and subsidised by the University
  • Order Endnote X7 from ITS  for a one-time fee of $25
  • Support for using Endnote is available from ITS and the Library
  • Training videos developed by Otago IT Training
  • EndNote Web is also available - this may be more suitable if you are frequently working from more than one computer. When you buy EndNote Desktop, you get free access to EndNote Web. A tutorial on setting up Endnote web is available from the library website.



STYLE GUIDES - including Referencing Information