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The Otago LibGuides are changing! The system will undergo a major update from 17 June to 15 July. You can learn more by taking a look at our LibGuides prototype here.

Archaeology: Writing & Citing

Writing & Essay Preparation

To assist you to develop the writing skills necessary to become a confident and skilled writer, the Student Learning Centre offer the following services:

Study Guides


  • The Quirky Comma: Tips on the when and how of using commas.
  • The Dreaded Apostrophe: Tips to help you use apostrophes correctly in your writing.
  • Colons and Semi Colons: This tip sheet is designed to clarify the use of colon and semi colons.
  • Writing a Literature Review: A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research.

Online Tutorials


The Student Learning Centre offer a range of workshops that will assist with your writing:

Time Management 

Individual Consultations with a Learning Advisor

If you are an enrolled student, you are welcome to visit the Student Learning Centre in the southwest corner of the Central Library (ISB) Building to discuss any aspect of your study that is causing concern. You can also telephone 479 8801 or e-mail  to make an appointment with a Learning Adviser. There are many ways that we can assist you with an individual appointment.

If you are an off-campus student, the same service is available to you through e-mail or a toll-free line: 0800 808 098. (Ask Otago) 

Student Learning Centre 

CRAAP Test - Evaluating Information

Evaluating Information (Te Ara Canterbury) 

It is important to identify Good information from Bad information

The video will help you evaluate the information you come across

  Evaluating Information (Pdf)   

Examination Preparation

Exam Prep Regulations Otago University

  Preparing for and sitting exams 

Exam Prep Resources 

  Take home exams, writing essays in exams, open book exams etc...

Analysis software

Qualitative data analysis software

  NVivo is for researchers to combine coding with qualitative linking, shaping, searching, and modelling.

NVivo from the University of Canterbury  (What is NVivo) 

NVivo help screen 

Help with Citing

If you follow a citation style correctly, you will avoid plagiarism and help your reader find your information sources. 

Social Media Citation Guide

                        Citing Social Media 


APA & MLA  (Georgia State) 

Chicago  (Carleton) 

Harvard  (Bournemouth) 

How to Cite a Podcast (MLA, APA, Chicago etc) 

Citation Guides

These books can help you when you are working on written assignments for art history and theory.

Theses & Dissertations

Thesis Information

Zoom Etiquette

Zoom - Host Tips

Zoom -  Attendee 

Zoom - Recoding sessions 

Mind Mapping Apps

Mind Mapping Apps - Individuals & Teams 

  Coggle - with this you'll see the central node of a new mind map, with a plus sign to get started adding new nodes and ideas 

  MindMeister - this tool includes keyboard shortcuts, embeds live videos, adds team members' upvotes, downvotes & leave comments. 

  Scapple - start with an idea, work "backwards" to find the main idea. Individual nodes will connect by dragging and dropping. 

  Stormboard - uses sticky notes and index cards, group your notes on different parts of the screen to represent connections. 

   SimpleMind - click on it to change it to whatever idea you're mind-mapping,  click on plus icons to create new branches and nodes. 

Computer Fonts

Māori Font

  Te Reo (at Otago)                   

Using Digital Tools in Archival Research

Digital Tools for Archival Research 

   Illinois Libguide  (Digital Tools)

   Transkribus  (Transcription tool) 

Assignment Planning Calculator


Academic Integrity and Plagiarism 

Academic integrity means being honest in your studies and assessments. Academic integrity is informed by the values of honesty, trust, responsibility, fairness, respect, and courage.

In New Zealand, high value is placed on full acknowledgment and referencing of the words and ideas of others. If you want to use information that you find elsewhere you must acknowledge where it came from.

This interactive online tutorial will help you learn what plagiarism is, why and how students get in trouble for it and how to use ideas or quotes from your research effectively.

AAIN Generative Artificial Intelligence Guidelines

How to Manage Your References

There is software available to help you to keep track of all of the information that you find and ensure that your citations are formatted correctly

Managing Your References - Introduction (Citation Library) 

Know which reference manager you are looking for?  Use the following links to quickly navigate to their tabs in this guide:

EndNote is software used to manage bibliographic citations. It can be used to organise references, cite them in papers, and automatically generate bibliographies - in the citation style of your choice. 

Zotero is a free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, cite, and share your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself.

Mendeley is a free reference manager that can help you store, organize, note, share and cite references and research data.

Creative Commons


Creative Commons Licence

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.