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Indigenous health models
Indigenous Health Models (IHM) have been designed to include indigenous concepts, knowledges, practices, values, world views and more that traditionally include a more holistic concept of health such as spiritual, emotional, mental and cultural facets as well as physical health.
Maori health models
The Māori philosophy towards health is based on a holistic wellbeing health model.
For many Māori the major deficiency in modern health services is the lack of recognition of taha wairua (spirit).
The five Māori health models outlined here are Te whare tapa wha, Te Pae Mahutonga, Te Wheke, and the Meihana model and included at the bottom is an explaination of the Te Aka Whai Ora - Maori Health Authority.
Te Whare Tapa Whā
Te whare tapa whā model for understanding Māori health is based on the four equal sides of a whare depicting the four dimensions of Māori well-being. If one of the dimensions is damaged or missing a person may become unwell. Modern health services focus on two sides of the whare - physical health (taha tinana) and mental health (taha hinengaro) - but lack the recoginition of the other two sides of the whare which are spirit (taha wairua) and family (taha whānau).
Te Pae Mahutonga
Te Pae Mahutonga is the Southern Cross Star Constellation model of Māori health. The four bright central stars represent the four key tasks of health promotion and the two pointer stars represent what needs to be inplace for health promotion to be successful.
The concept of Te Wheke, the octopus, is to define family health. The head of the octopus represents te whānau, the eyes of the octopus as waiora (total wellbeing for the individual and family) and each of the eight tentacles representing a specific dimension of health. The dimensions are interwoven and this represents the close relationship of the tentacles.
When Māori left their ancestral homeland of Hawaiki to voyage to Aotearoa it was waka they travelled in. A doubled-hulled voyaging canoe, which is one type of waka that tūpuna (ancestors) journeyed on across the Pacific Ocean, is the central symbol for The Meihana Model, a clinical assessment tool for engaging with Māori.
Te Aka Whai Ora - Māori Health Authority
Our organisational structure has been designed along functional lines and the five core functional building blocks. It is organised into six directorates, depicted by a sixteen-point wind compass.
Indigenous Health Research Methodology resources
Maori Subject Headings
"Ngā Upoku Tukutuku was developed by the Māori Subject Headings Project, jointly sponsored by LIANZA, Te Rōpū Whakahau, and the National Library.
The tool provides a structured path to a Māori world view within library and archival cataloguing and description. It supports cataloguers and descriptive archivists to assign appropriate terms for the material, and helps users find those items within a framework they relate to.
The terms listed are not a dictionary, and shouldn’t be seen as authoritative beyond their use in libraries and archives.
New terms are developed by Te Whakakaokao, the Ngā Upoko Tukutuku Reo Māori Working Group."
Ngā Upoko Tukutuku Library Guide
Ngā Upoko Tukutuku | Māori Subject Headings have an important role to play in providing access to Māori resources and literature in te reo Māori (and perhaps all catalogued material going forward) for our tauira and researchers, particularly for Te Tumu and other kaupapa Māori papers.
Nga upoko tukutuku - Māori Subject Headings
About the project, conceptual framework and new and changed terms from National Library.
OCLC Māori Subject Heading Support
Discover how to search, browse, and apply Māori subject headings in WorldShare Record Manager.
Cataloguing tools from the National Library to assist cataloguers, archivists and indexers describe material including Māori Subject Headings and Iwi-Hapu names list
Possibly useful resources
Pacific health models, methods and approaches
First of all, it's important for Pacific research to take place in an environment and with maintainence of le va. "In learning settings, le va is about giving space and time to prioritise and value relationships with students, families and colleagues – nurturing physical and relational spaces. Teu le Vā (nurture the relationship) is a common expression because it shows how relationships define us. Le va is also about how we are within the space; encompassing principles such as reciprocity, balance, respect, and mutual trust." Tapasā, Pacific Values, Ministry of Education New Zealand
The Fonofale Model - pan-pacific health model
The Fonofale model incorportates the values and beliefs of Samoans, Cook Islanders, Tongans, Niueans, Tokelauns and Fijians. Similar to the Fonua model, health encompasses different foundations of life including family, cultural values and beliefs, spiritual, physical, mental and other. These foundations are interrelated and health is about maintaining and sustaining balance between these foundations (Pulotu-Endeman, 2001).
The Fonua Model - Tongan health model
The Fonua model is a Tongan framework to health which comprises of five dimensions of life which are inter-dependent and complementary to each other. To maintain harmony in life, health issues must be addressed at all dimensions (Tu‘itahi, 2007). In additional to the five dimensions, there are four phases in the natural order of Fonua (Sione Tu‘itahi, 2009).
Talanoa - pan-pacific method
Tala (to tell, relate or ask) Noa (ordinary, non-sacred, without exertion) in Tongan, Samoan, and Fijian language. This method involves narrative, dialogue, storytelling. Traditionally, as a method of inquiry, it encourages interaction or knowledge exchange without following an established theoretical frame or scripted agenda such as a focus group, interview, formal environment with microphones and recording etc. Getting the conditions right for talanoa enables authentic and trustworthy collaborative knowledge-making processes to occur. It's an ongoing relationship between the person doing the research and the people that are participating in the research.
Tok Stori - Melanesian method
Tok stori is a Melanesian term for what Solomon Islanders do everyday – telling stories, creating a joint narrative, and making sense of life. Some researchers have paid attention to myriad forms of tok stori in Melanesian villages. These range from the storied revelation of secret knowledge destined only for the few, to retellings of day-to-day activities for the amusement of actors and any passing listeners. Beyond the village, and in addition to groups of friends trading experiences, the potential of tok stori as a form of engagement is being recognised in fields such as informing policy and implementing pedagogy.
Tivaevae - Cook Islands method
Tivaevae is a research framework based on the traditions of creating a tivaevae (handmade quilt). The tivaevae represents knowledge and the classification and explination of objects in the Cook Island worldview.
Kakala - Tongan approach
Kakala is a Tongan research framework model that represents a garland made of flowers and leaves to be worn on special occasions. The flower garlands are made by groups of women who work on the garlands individually but in a group setting which demonstrates collaboration, sharing resources and passing skills to the next generation.
Vanua - Fijian approach
The Fijian Vanua Framework for Research (FVRF) is advised to be used when reseazrching Fijian histories, knowledge, skilss, art, values etc. and refers to the universal whole which includes Fijian culture, chiefs and their people, knowledge systems, relationships, values, their land, and spiritualities.
Ula - Samoan approach
Ula takes into consideration cultural knowledge, understandings within the family and their individual and collective roles, and responsibilities and ownership frameworks in Samoan society. The Ula model is informed by the underpinning theoretical frameworks which are founded on the principles and values of Samoan culture (fa’asamoa). Fa’asamoa can be described as the Samoan way of doing things. Fa’asamoa is dominated by the concepts of the extended family (aiga potopoto), chiefly structure (fa’amatai), and ceremonial gift giving and exchanging (fefa’asoaiga/fesuiaiga).
Fa'afaletui - Samoan approach
Fa’afaletui is a Samoan concept that focuses on connectedness, collectivity, and working
together. It is a culturally sensitive model that requires the input of different social groups to
reach a consensus for decision making. It involves ‘‘the ways of’’ (fa’a) gathering, sharing and
validating knowledge from deliberations of different groups or ‘‘houses’’ (fale) and ‘‘weaving
these together’’ (tui) for knowledge-sharing and consensus-building (Tamasese et al., 2005).
Ministry of Health Pacific Health and Wellbeing Action Plan 2020-2025
The Ministry of Health has developed the Pacific Health and Wellbeing Action Plan 2020-2025 to focus on improving the wellbeing of Pacific people in New Zealand. It prioritises outcomes and actions for the health and disability sector for Pacific people. It was produced with the guidance and input of Pacific communities in New Zealand to focus on what is needed to help Pacific Island communities thrive.
University of Otago resources
Learning Café: Indigenous knowledge systems and research methods
HEDC offer a "Learning Café: Indigenous knowledge systems and research methods" free workshop that's available for staff and students. "Indigenous research is a relational and values-focused research inquiry that requires engaging indigenous people and communities as co-creators and partners in the research process, as well as the custodians of the research outcome. Indigenous Research Methods (IRM) ontology and epistemology primarily focus on co-creating knowledge within socio-cultural boundaries. Unlike other research methods traditions, IRM requires that all of the research components in the process embody the values of the Indigenous group involved."
University of Otago Pacific Research Protocols
The purpose of this document is to outline suggested protocols for University researchers in relation to research involving Pacific peoples in the Otago-Southland region, the rest of New Zealand, and, more generally, in the islands of Oceania. In doing so, the University acknowledges that the quality of the relationships it hopes to foster and maintain with Pacific communities is the essential foundation for all research development. Thus the University respectfully seeks to find mutually agreed protocols that both establish and enhance this relationship now and into the future. This proposed set of protocols falls within the broad ambit of the University of Otago’s Human Ethics Committee and other key strategic documents.
Research Consultation with Māori
The Research Consultation with Māori Policy provides the framework for an appropriate and mandated consultation process with Māori for research. It ensures an effective and efficient mechanism for managing the consultation process while acknowledging the needs and aspirations of Ngāi Tahu for Māori development and benefit in Ngāi Tahu Vision 2025.
Māori health research advancement
This page provides background and resources to assist health sciences researchers to implement Māori-responsive research practices.
Māori and Pacific Genetics of Health - University of Otago
The sequencing of the human genome in 2001 initiated a decade of rapid advance in understanding the impact of genetic variation in the human genome on human disease. This, and the advent of new ‘next generation sequencing’ technologies that enables identification of all variation in individual genomes, ensures that genetic approaches to human diseases will continue to be prominent in health research. The focus of this theme will be on strengthening the Maori and Pacific research workforce and research with Māori and Pacific communities (in New Zealand and the South Pacific) on genetics of health
Genomic possibilities - University of Otago
Genomic medicine is beginning to change human health outcomes worldwide, making a difference both at the individual and population levels in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics. But for New Zealand, the challenge is not just to be able to keep up with this fast growing field; it’s also to ensure equitable benefits from genomic-based technology. To do that, University of Otago researchers know accurate genomic information from Māori populations will be required.
Collation of iwi data by iwi/for iwi.
Te Whata is a data platform tailored specifically by iwi for iwi – by us for us. Te Whata is for iwi members, technicians and leaders – designers and users of data. We want to be able to tell our own narratives according to our own priorities and world views. Te Whata has been designed with this in mind.
Te Mana Raraunga
Our data, our sovereignty, our future. This vision drove the establishment of Te Mana Raraunga as the Māori Data Sovereignty Network. We advocate for Māori rights and interests in data to be protected as the world moves into an increasingly open data environment.