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The Otago LibGuides are changing! The system will undergo a major update from 17 June to 15 July. You can learn more by taking a look at our LibGuides prototype here.

Information Science: DIGH707


Some Key Resources:

Other Databases:

Assess your findings

Evaluating and thinking critically about sources of information are important skills to develop and apply while undertaking research.

Not all information is reliable and appropriate for academic work, and not all information is relevant to your particular topic.

You should challenge and reflect on information that you find; don’t just accept everything you read.

Assess sources, based on:
OROKOHANGA - ‘The Origins’: The source of the information
MANA - ‘The Authority’ of the information
WHAKAPAPA - ‘The Background’ of the information
MĀRAMATANGA - ‘The Content’ and usability of the
ARONGA - ‘The Lens’ or objectivity of the information

Tutorial link


Work through this tutorial to develop your skills in evaluating information that you find online:

SIFT - Evaluating Information Tutorial

Even though the library databases are good sources of information, we still need to evaluate that information before we decide to use it. You can do this by asking the following questions:

  • Is the information relevant to your topic?​
  • Who are the authors, are they experts in the field? Who do they work for? What else have they written?​
  • What evidence is given, what references are given, and what methodology is used?​
  • How is the study funded? Is there a bias?​
  • When was the information written, is it still relevant? Has it been updated or amended in light of new evidence?

Use the acronym BADURL to help you evaluate online sources:
B ... Bias
A ... Authority
D ... Date
U ... URL
R ... Relevance
L ... Links

Work through this tutorial to develop your skills in evaluating information that you find online:

What the CRAPP Tutorial

Or apply these terms to assess if the information you have found answers your research question.




Purpose/Point of view

Other Useful Guides

See the box below for some Grey Literature examples.

Grey Literature Examples

      Cartoon is copyright to Cartoons by Jim and reproduced with permission from HiNZ

Click on the image above for Public Resources from the HiNZ (Health Informatics New Zealand) website. You can access recent conference proceedings, browse cartoons or sign up to the free eNewsletter

Try these Grey Literature search engines after Google Search: Tips and Tricks:

Check out the Visual tab or Filters!!

Organisations & Associations

To Find Books ...

Try searching Library Search | Ketu, to find books (including E-books) held by the University of Otago Library.

For example: