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Preventive & Social Medicine: PUBH203

PUBH203

This page provides assistance with referencing primary sources at the Hocken Collections for PUBH203 students.

Hocken Collections

See the Hocken website for the current Covid-19 setting safety measures, hours of opening and other information.

If you need help with locating Hocken sources for the PUBH203 assignment, please contact:

            katherine.milburn@otago.ac.nz

            amanda.mills@otago.ac.nz

 

Finding sources

Use these links to find sources for your assignment:

  • Library Search|Ketu - University of Otago Library catalogue to locate books, journals, newspapers, articles, music and audiovisual material, and maps (includes the published collections at Hocken Collections)
  • Hākena - online catalogue to locate archives and manuscripts, pictures, photographs and ephemera at the Hocken Collections
  • Hocken Snapshop - digitised photographs at the Hocken Collections
  • Papers Past - digitised New Zealand newspapers, magazines and Parliamentary Papers
  • Digital NZ - discover more than 30 million digital items from more than 200 New Zealand organisations 

 

Vancouver examples for referencing Hocken resources

The University of Otago LibGuide on Referencing using Vancouver citation style provides helpful examples and links, including basic examples for secondary sources such as journal articles, websites and books.

This guide provides examples for referencing some more challenging primary sources in Vancouver, eg. archives, government publications, images and ephemera. A number of these examples will be useful to the PUBH 203 assignment using materials from Hocken Collections.

For all items you use, you will need to reference the original source (where the original item is held ie. Hocken Collections). If you access a source online, you should reference both the original source and the link to where you accessed it. 

Hākena is the online catalogue for finding unpublished material at the Hocken Collections. Use it to locate archives and manuscripts, photographs, pictures and ephemera. Most of the records on Hākena contain the necessary information that you need for referencing, such as author/creator, date, title, and reference number. However, not all of the primary sources that we have used for this class are listed on Hākena. See the examples listed below for guidance.

 

Print newspaper article

The Hocken Collections holds a wide range of New Zealand and Pacific newspapers - search for holdings via Library Search|Ketu. Many of these newspapers are held in their original print format. Some of them have been copied onto microfilm and must be viewed on microfilm readers in the library. 

See the next section for information on how to cite newspaper articles found online.

Use the link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7261/ for information on how to cite newspaper articles.

Electronic newspaper article

Papers Past is a National Library website that provides access to a growing number of 19th and 20th century New Zealand and Pacific newspapers. You can search by keyword, or browse by title, date and region. You can also filter and sort your results as required.

Cite an Internet newspaper article as you would a print newspaper article, but with these major exceptions:

  • Use the word "Internet" in square brackets as the Type of Medium after the newspaper title

  • Include any update or revision date if there is one and a date of citation (the date you accessed the material) in square brackets following the date of publication

  • When a location (pagination) for the article is not provided, as often occurs, calculate the length of the article using the best means possible, e.g., in terms of print pages, screens, or paragraphs

  • Provide the URL or other electronic address of the article

Use the link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7261/ for information on how to cite electronic newspaper articles.

A Hocken assignment specific example is below

Example: ‘Food Riots in Dunedin’

An article called ‘Food Riots in Dunedin’ is found on Papers Past but it was originally printed in the Otago Daily Times in 1932. The most important thing to note when citing this article, is that you need to cite the original source, which – in this case – is the Otago Daily Times

To find all the details of the original source, click on 'Research info'.

Once you click on the link to ‘Research info’, the below information appears, which provides most of the details needed for the citation.

There is no author for this article. The title is ‘Food Riots in Dunedin’.

The bibliographic details do not state the column number so you must look at the page view to calculate this. Click on the link to 'page 8' above.

This will bring up a view of the whole page and you can then workout which columns the article was printed on.

So the reference for this article will be:

Food Riots in Dunedin. Otago Daily Times [Internet]. 1932 January 11 [cited 2022 March 4]: 8 (col. 1-4). Available from: https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19320111.2.63

Archives and Manuscripts

Archives and manuscripts are key sources of social and personal memory. We keep them for their value as historical primary source material.

Archives and manuscripts can be:

  • Letters, emails, records of business
  • Diaries, memoirs, databases
  • Membership records
  • Registers of community organisations like clubs, churches and associations

Archives and manuscripts can be single items or groups of related materials. They can be photographs, sound recordings or video. Archives are increasingly collected in digital form.

See the link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7264/#A45108 for information on how to cite items in archives and manuscripts collections.

Hocken specific examples 

Example 1: Dunedin Housewives' Association Minute book (AG-002-01)

To reference the Housewives Association Minute book, you will need the following information: Author/creator (Dunedin Housewives' Association), title of the item (Minute Book), reference number (AG-002-01), date (1930-1941), and at the end of the reference the location of where it is held (Archives and Manuscripts Collection, Hocken Collections, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ) should always be included.

The Otago Archival citation guide here https://www.otago.ac.nz/library/pdf/citing_archival_sources.pdf gives information about citing archives, but does not include Vancouver – however, it is useful to see what information you do need.

For specific examples of citing manuscripts see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7264/#A45150

So the reference for the Dunedin Housewives' Association Minute Book is:

Dunedin Housewives' Association. Minute Book. [Minute book].1930-1941. 283p. Located at: Archives and Manuscripts Collection, Hocken Collections, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; AG-002-01.

But if you wish to refer to a specific portion of the minute book, such as the notes for a meeting eg. 7th October 1930 then follow the examples given at https://www.grafiati.com/en/info/vancouver/archive/

and the reference would look like this:

Dunedin Housewives' Association. [Notes of meeting]. 1930 Oct 7. Located at: Archives and Manuscripts Collection, Hocken Collections, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; Dunedin Housewives’ Association: Records, Minute book, 1930-1941, AG-002-01, Pages 2-4.

Example 2: Home and Family Society Minute Book (AG-647/10)

Similarly for this item, you will need the following information: Author/creator (Home and Family Society, Dunedin Branch Inc.), title of the item (Minute Book), reference number (AG-647/10), date (1931-1939), and at the end of the reference the location of where it is held (Archives and Manuscripts Collection, Hocken Collections, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ).

So reference the Home and Family Society Minute Book as:

Home and Family Society, Dunedin Branch Inc. Minute Book. [Minute book]. 1931-1939. 146 leaves. Located at: Archives and Manuscripts Collection, Hocken Collections, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; AG-647/10.

Lecture notes

Use the link https://guides.library.uwa.edu.au/c.php?g=324981&p=2178466 for information on how to cite lecture notes.

* Please Note - don't use 'Superscript' as mentioned in this example

Photographs

At the Hocken Collections photographs can be found in both the Photographs Collection and Archives and Manuscripts Collection. You are able to search for photographs in these collections using Hākena. Formats range from daguerreotypes, prints, albums, postcards, panoramas, 35mm slides to lantern slides, glass and film negatives and digital files. Some of our photographs have been digitised and can be viewed online via Hākena and/or Hocken Snapshop. In some cases the photographs that we hold are copies of photographs from other institutions. This information should be provided by the catalogue record on Hākena, and your reference should show both holdings (see example 2 below).

Use the link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7258/ and https://guides.lib.monash.edu/citing-referencing/vancouver-av for information on how to cite photographs.

Hocken specific examples 

Example 1: May Day Demonstration (P1998-028/02-002) [From Photographs Collection]

May Day demonstration [photograph]. [Christchurch]: Christchurch Press; 1932. Located at: Photographs Collection, Hocken Collections, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; Allied Press: Photographs from the Otago Witness and the Otago Daily Times, P1998-028/02-002.1 photograph: black & white, 168 x 217 mm.

Example 2: Roadmaking by unemployed during the Depression [From Hocken Snapshop]

A photograph 'Roadmaking by unemployed during the Depression' is found on Hocken Snapshop 

In the 'Notes' on the right is a comment to "Please Credit Alexander Turnbull Library".

This means that the original photograph is held in the Alexander Turnbull Library. A search of their catalogue using the terms "roadmaking depression" finds the record for the photograph.

This provides the details needed for the citation.

So the reference for this image is:

Roadmaking by unemployed during the Depression [Internet].1932 March [cited 2022 March 4]. Available from: https://hocken.recollect.co.nz/nodes/view/21771. Hocken photograph is a copy print of the original photograph: Roadmaking during the Depression, possibly Akatarawa, Hutt Valley [photograph]. 1932 March 23. Located at: Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, NZ1/2-022602-F. 1 photograph: black & white.

Example 3: Relief Workers camp in Camp Gully, Waipori, 1933 [From Digital NZ]

Digital NZ is a website where you can access a range of digital content provided by numerous New Zealand institutions and organisations. It includes videos, newspapers, maps, photographs, audio recordings, artworks and news reports. It is important to reference the original source of any item and not just the link to the Digital NZ website.

A photograph of a relief workers camp in Waipori is found from a search on Digital NZ. Click on the image to find more details and use the link 'view the item on their site' that takes you to the website of the original source (Dunedin City Council Archives Flickr).

That website provides the details needed for the citation underneath the photograph:

So the reference will be:

Bathgate. Relief Workers Camp in Camp Gully, Waipori, 1933 [Internet]. 1933 [cited 2022 March 4]. Located at: Dunedin City Council Archives, Dunedin, NZ; Electricity Series 14/1/12/8. Available from: https://digitalnz.org/records/36783771/relief-workers-camp-in-camp-gully-waipori-1933

Photograph in a newspaper

You may find relevant photographs published in newspapers. Images found in newspapers are referenced similarly to newspaper articles (see above). 

A Hocken assignment specific example is below

Example: ‘A Queue of Applicants’

A photograph called ‘A Queue of Applicants’ is found on Papers Past but it was originally printed in the Otago Daily Times in 1934. The most important thing to note when citing this photograph, is that you need to cite the original source, which – in this case – is the Otago Daily Times

To find all the details of the original source, click on 'Research info'.

Once you click on the link to ‘Research info’, the below information appears, which provides most of the details needed for the citation.

There is no author/creator for this photo. The title is ‘A Queue of Applicants’.

The bibliographic details do not state the column number so you must look at the page view to calculate this. Click on the link to 'page 13' above.

This will bring up a view of the whole page and you can then workout which column(s) the image was printed on.

So the reference for this image will be:

A Queue of Applicants. Otago Daily Times [Internet]. 1934 March 8 [cited 2022 March 4]: 13 (col. 3-5). Available from: https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19340308.2.120.1

Cartoon in a newspaper

You may find relevant cartoons published in newspapers. These are referenced similarly to photographs in newspapers (see above). 

A Hocken assignment specific example is below

Example: 'Jumping to Conclusions'

A cartoon called ‘Jumping to Conclusions’ is found on Papers Past but it was originally printed in the New Zealand Herald in 1938. The most important thing to note when citing this photograph, is that you need to cite the original source, which – in this case – is the New Zealand Herald

Follow the same instructions as above for find the 'Research info' and column details. The cartoonist is not identified.

So the reference for this image will be:

Jumping to Conclusions. New Zealand Herald [Internet]. 1938 August 13 [cited 2022 March 4]: 16 (col. 3-6). Available from: https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NZH19380813.2.105

Government resources

For information about  referencing Government publications in Vancouver, try these links: 

The general citation rules for Government publications are:

Specific Hocken examples

Example 1: Report of the Influenza Epidemic Commission 1919 AJHR Session I, H-31a

The Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives (AJHR) include a wide variety of reports and other papers presented to parliament and ordered to be published, including reports of government departments, institutions and agencies, along with one‐off reports. They are referenced as a Government publication. The AJHRs include information about public health and unemployment. The AJHRs are available online via Papers Past and they are also available in print form at Hocken Collections.

The reference needs to cite the original report in the AJHR’s and not just a link to the Papers Past website.

A correct citation would be:

Influenza Epidemic Commission. Influenza Epidemic Commission (Report of the) [Internet]. Wellington, NZ: House of Representatives; 1919 [cited 2022 March 4]. 44 p. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, Session I, H-31a. Available from: https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/parliamentary/AJHR1919-I.2.2.4.45

2. Parliamentary Debates Vol.238 1934 War Pensions Amendment Bill

The New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, also known as Hansard, are a verbatim record of what is said in Parliament and should also be referenced as a Government publication. Historical debates for the period 1854-2016 are available via https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/hansard-debates/historical-hansard/ (links through to debates on HathiTrust website) and they are also available in print form at Hocken Collections.

The reference needs to cite the original debate in Hansard and not just a link to the HathiTrust website.

For this example, we are only referring to a particular debate about the War Pensions Amendment Bill and not the whole volume of debates. See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7280/ for details on how to cite parts of a report.

A correct citation for the debate about the War Pensions Amendment Bill on pages 815-830 would be:

House of Representatives. Parliamentary Debates [Internet]. Wellington, NZ: House of Representatives; 1934 [cited 2022 March 4]. 966p. Volume 238. House of Representatives, Wednesday 1st August 1934, War Pensions Amendment Bill; p. 815-830. Available from: babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.32106019929576&view=1up&seq=823&skin=2021

Ephemera

Ephemera is printed material that is produced for immediate and temporary use and is usually then discarded. The Hocken's ephemera collection includes a wide range of printed material, such as posters, programmes, leaflets, flyers, packaging, and advertising circulars. You are able to search for ephemera using Hākena, but most of the collection is not listed online yet. Please contact Katherine Milburn, Curator Ephemera, for any assistance with this collection.

Specific Hocken examples

Example 1: 1938 Labour Party Election ephemera

Wilson, David. What N.Z. Labour Means to You. Wellington, NZ: Standard Press; [1938?]. 16 leaves. Located at: Ephemera Collection, Hocken Collections, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; Eph-0010-JQ-A-11.

Example 2: 1938 National Party Election ephemera

New Zealand National Party. Your future in your hand. Auckland, NZ: Wilson & Horton Ltd.: [1938?]. 12 leaves. Located at: Ephemera Collection, Hocken Collections, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; Eph-0010-JQ-A-12.

Audiovisual materials

Audiovisual (AV) materials include sound recordings, and film and video recordings. Hocken Collections has a large collection of audiovisual recordings on different formats which can be searched for on Library Search | Ketu. These materials can be accessed at Hocken Collections. Please contact Amanda Mills, Curator Music and AV for further information about these materials.

Some primary source AV materials relating to the 1938 Social Security Act are part of other institutions' collections, and are available online. To cite these online streaming AV materials in Vancouver style, you must include the following information: Director. Title [format]. Producer. Place of publication: publisher, date of publication [date viewed]. URL. Holding institution and reference number (if available).

Additional information on citing AV materials can be found in the Otago University Library Vancouver Referencing Libguide, and in the University of Queensland Vancouver Referencing Style Library Guide for AV materials.

 

Example: New Zealand history in the making

 

New Zealand History in the Making is a 1938 film made by the Labour Party, featuring then Prime Minister, Michael Joseph Savage, and discussing Social Security. A correct citation for this streamed film would be:

[Director Unknown]. New Zealand history in the making [digitised streamed film]. 1938. Standard Laboratory production: Wellington, 1938 [2022 April 4]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5kbiCoylMfA. Archives New Zealand Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga AAOJ W5034 513 - B8376.

To locate AV material relating to the 1938 Social Security Act online, try a search on DigitalNZ. DigitalNZ is an aggregator site - it brings together digitised material from institutions all around New Zealand, providing links to those institutions where the items are housed, and citation information.

Example two: Health camps for happiness

Health Camps for Happiness is a 1937 newsreel film showing the benefits of health camps for children. Health camps were seen as important for children's wellbeing, and supported by the state. A correct citation for this streamed film newsreel would be:

[Director unknown]. Health Camps for Happiness [digitised streamed filmreel]. 1938. Wellington: Government Film Studios, 1937 [12 Apr 2022] https://www.ngataonga.org.nz/collections/catalogue/catalogue-item?record_id=66287. Ngā Taonga Sound and Vision F6470.