Identify strategically which format, publication and publisher best suits your research output and audience. This due diligence can enhance your chances of being read, cited more frequently, and your work being reused.
Questions you might ask:
Use the Think-Check-Submit checklist to make informed decisions on the quality, integrity and credibility of a journal or publisher.
Questions to ask supervisors and departmental colleagues:
Knowing what research topics are in demand by journal publishers can give you an edge when it comes to getting your research 'out there'.
New and emerging journals, including open access titles, may not have been ranked yet. Assess the quality of such titles by verifying editorial board quality, verifying publishing body authority, thoroughly checking the papers that are being published, impact factors, acceptance rates, and publication timeframes.
A preprint is a scholarly manuscript posted by the author(s) in an openly accessible platform, usually before or in parallel with the peer review process. Source: COPE.
Where are these Preprint Servers/Repositories?
Many platforms archive preprints; some are subject-specific, others include preprints from multiple disciplines. Search multiple platforms to find the latest research on a specific topic. Preprints can also be found searching PubMed and Google Scholar.
arXiv is a preprint server for physics, math, computer sciences, quantitative biology and statistics.
Authorea is a platform for publishing articles, data, figures and preprints.
bioRxiv is a preprint server for biology.
ChemRxiv is a preprint repository for chemistry.
Figshare is a repository where users can make all of their research outputs available in a citable, shareable and discoverable manner.
F1000 Research is an Open Research publishing platform for scientists, scholars and clinicians offering rapid publication of articles and other research outputs without editorial bias.
Google Scholar contains preprints and each result will need to be checked to confirm the preprint status.
medRxiv is a preprint server for the health sciences.
Open Science Framework (OSF) is a free, open platform to support your research and enable collaboration. OSF contains over two million preprints from a number of preprint repositories.
OUR Archive is the University of Otago's research repository. Add your PDF, or Author accepted manuscript, whichever your journal contract allows.
Preprints.org is a platform dedicated to making early versions of research outputs permanently available and citable. Content on Preprints is not peer-reviewed and can receive feedback from readers.
PsyArXiv is a free preprint service for the psychological sciences.
PubMed - Use the query of: "preprint"[Publication Type] to find records for preprints in PubMed. PubMed records include a link to PubMed Central to view the full text of the preprint.
PubMed Central (PMC) - Use the query of: preprint[filter] to find preprints in PMC.
RePeC disseminates research in Economics and related sciences.
Research Square contains over 25,000 preprints and allows authors to submit preprints and make edit prior to peer review in a journal.
Rxivist combines preprints from bioRxiv with data from Twitter to help find the papers being discussed in your field.
SciELO Preprints is a multidisciplinary international preprint server.
SSRN is a multidisciplinary preprint server, with social science strength.
Listing of Preprint Servers maintained by Martyn Rittman from Preprints.org.
Disciplinary repositories - includes preprint and postprint repositories.
What is scooping?
When research is published by a researcher/s before a rival team can publish theirs on the same topic, or where an idea or results are published without proper attribution to those who came up with the idea or had results first.
It's low risk because preprint servers will timestamp and/or add a DOI for each preprint deposited, making it clear whose research came first.
Can I trust the research that's not peer-reviewed?
One of the benefits to depositing preprints on servers or repositories is that the research community (rather than a small team of anonymised peer reviewers) can provide feedback, and help to improve preliminary research or debunk misleading information.
What if people read preprints and take the results as irrefutable evidence, not realizing that a preprint is not the final version?
Many preprint servers screen papers before accepting them. Preprints are also often marked as such, warning the reader that they are not peer-reviewed.
Will I get two DOIs if my preprint becomes a published paper in a journal?
Yes, but the preprint DOI will be different to the journal's DOI.
Become a Peer Reviewer, as this can stimulate your ability to appraise scholarly writing... and perhaps in turn, improve your own writing.
Add any peer review work you do to your CV too.
Why Open Access?
Open access publications:
Open Access publishers:
Types of Open Access
Congratulations - you're ready to submit to a target journal or publication, one at a time.
Make the editor's job as easy as possible!
It's important to understand your rights when you sign a publishing agreement because this can affect how you can use your own work later. Apart from the initial publication of your work, you may also want to put copies on your own website, share it via social media, republish it, use it in your teaching, etc.
What order should the authors be in, if a paper is co-authored? Check the ICMJE Vancouver Protocols for criteria.
Check out the author's information on the publisher's website to see if they have information or a sample contract, e.g. an open access journal where authors retain copyright or a journal where copyright is assigned but some rights are retained by the author.
If your publication is open access then you will have the right to reuse your own work (as will others). In most cases you retain the copyright and give a licence to the publisher to use the work.
Many more traditional agreements will involve 'transfer' or 'assignment' of copyright to the publisher. If this is the case then carefully check what things you can do with your work.
Find out about funders' policies in the Sherpa/Juliet database.
Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) - identifies principles of transparency and best practice for scholarly publications. COPE provides advice to editors and publishers on all aspects of publication ethics, in particular how to handle research and publication misconduct. COPE members are expected to follow a code of conduct for journal editors. Search 'Member' page for journal or publisher.
Learn more about Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing
'Predatory publishing' is an abuse of the 'author-pays model' where deceptive publishers claim to be Open Access in order to collect payments from prospective authors. There are other deceptive publishing practices to look out for as well. Suggested reading:
Check what you should be aware of with publishing offers.
Publishing a book requires legal deposit of a copy with the National Library of NZ. You need an International Standard Book Number (ISBN or e-ISBN) if you self-publish; otherwise your publisher will organise this. The number does not indicate quality of your research output.
Publishing a new journal requires legal deposit of the print copy, or access to the online copy. You will need an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or e-ISSN).
Publishing a score or piece of music requires a legal deposit of the printed score,or its parts. You will need an International Standard Music Number (ISMN) for the score or parts.
Learn more about registering your research output.
Publishing an article in an online journal will receive a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) supplied by the journal publisher. If self-publishing online note the URL.
Deposit your research in OUR Archive
Archiving a preprint, or an author accepted manuscript (AAM), or published version of your work, is a vital step in preserving and promoting access to your research outputs.
For staff, listing your work in MyResearch is mandatory at Otago, but does not garner citations.
OUR (Otago University Research) Archive offers the unique benefits of simultaneous preservation, access, promotion, networking and usage tracking.
Publish your work
Choose a traditional subscription publisher, an open access publisher, or publish through a researcher network.
Publish your data
Archive your research data to maintain integrity of your research output, and for potential reuse by other scholars.
There are a number of ways in which you can promote your research, to increase your discoverability and scholarly visibility.
It's important to keep a track of what you publish and how frequently your research is being cited. There are a number of tools available for doing this: